Korean: 으 irregular


Most of the Korean adjectives and verbs, such as 아/어요, are used according to the basic rules of variation, but there are some exceptions, which are irregular variations (also known as variation rules). Common irregular variations include 으 irregular, ㄹ irregular, ㅂ irregular, ㅅ irregular, ㄷ irregular, 르 irregular, and ㅎ irregular.

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Irregularities

Most Korean adjectives and verbs follow the basic rules of variation, such as 아/어요, but some exceptions exist, and these exceptions are irregular variations.
Common irregular variations are

  • 으 irregular
  • ㄹ irregular
  • ㅂ irregular
  • ㅅ irregular
  • ㄷ irregular
  • 르 irregular
  • ㅎ irregular

This article introduces the use of 으 irregular.

으 irregular

The stem of an adjective or verb with a ㅡ ending (e.g. 쓰다, 나쁘다) will change when followed by a ㅇ consonant (e.g. 아/어요).
This change is called the introduction of 으 irregularity.
Below, we introduce the ㅂ니다 form, the 요 form, and the past tense variation.

ㅂ니다形

Same as the normal rules.
ex: 쓰다 -> 씁니다。

요形

First, determine if there are other syllables before the 으 syllable in the stem.
If so, the vowel of the preceding syllable of the 으 syllable will change.

1. When the vowel is "ㅏ,ㅗ

The basic rule is that if the vowel is "ㅏ,ㅗ", 아요 is added at the end.
For the 으 irregular, replace the ㅡ vowel with ㅏ and add 요 at the end.
For example, 나쁘다 -> 나빠요.


2. When the vowel is other than "ㅏ,ㅗ

The basic rule is that when the vowel is other than "ㅏ,ㅗ", 어요 is added after it.
For the 으 variant, replace the vowel of ㅡ with ㅓ and add 요 at the end.
For example, 기쁘다 -> 기뻐요.


3. When there is no preceding syllable

There is no other vowel in the stem except 으.
Replace the ㅡ vowel with ㅓ and add 요 at the end.
For example, 쓰다 -> 썼어요.

Past tense

The variation rule is similar to the 요-type.

1. When the vowel is "ㅏ,ㅗ

In the case of 으 irregular, replace the vowel ㅡ with ㅏ and add ㅆ다 at the end.
For example, 나쁘다 -> 나빴다 -> 나빴어요.


2. When the vowel is other than "ㅏ,ㅗ

For the 으 irregular, replace the vowel of ㅡ with ㅓ and add ㅆ다 at the end.
For example, 기쁘다 -> 기뻤다 -> 기뻤어요.


3. When there is no preceding syllable

There is no vowel other than 으 in the stem.
Replace the ㅡ vowel with ㅓ and add ㅆ다 at the end.
For example, 쓰다 -> 썼다 -> 썼어요.

Summary

The following summarizes a table.

verb/adj.으 irregular으 irregular's past tense
쓰다써요썼어요
나쁘다나빠요나빴어요
아프다아파요아팠어요
바쁘다바빠요바빴어요
기쁘다기뻐요기뻤어요
슬프다슬퍼요슬펐어요
예쁘다예뻐요예뻤어요
크다커요컸어요

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