Korean: ㄷ irregular


Most of the Korean adjectives and verbs, such as 아/어요, are used according to the basic rules of variation, but there are some exceptions, which are irregular variations (also known as variation rules). Common irregular variations include 으 irregular, ㄹ irregular, ㅂ irregular, ㅅ irregular, ㄷ irregular, 르 irregular, and ㅎ irregular.

If you are using Chrome or an Android phone, you can listen to the pronunciation by clicking on the Korean in the table or the Korean in the example sentences in the article!

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Irregularities

Most Korean adjectives and verbs follow the basic rules of variation, such as 아/어요, but some exceptions exist, and these exceptions are irregular variations.
Common irregular variations are

  • 으 irregular
  • ㄹ irregular
  • ㅂ irregular
  • ㅅ irregular
  • ㄷ irregular
  • 르 irregular
  • ㅎ irregular

This article introduces the use of ㄷ irregular.

ㄷ irregular

When the stem ending of a verb or adjective is ㄷ and is followed by "-으니까", "-으면", "-아/어서", "-으러", "-아/어요 ", pay attention to whether or not to make an irregular change in ㄷ.

「whether or not」!? Does it mean that not all the ㄷ-final words have to be changed irregularly?

→ Yes, some of them should be ㄷ irregular and some should be ㄷ regular.

examples of ㄷ irregular,걷다(walk)、듣다(listen)、묻다(ask)、싣다(load).
examples of ㄷ regular,받다(accept)、닫다(close)、믿다(believe)、얻다(gain).

First, let's explain the usage of ㄷ irregular.

Irregular usage.
    Replace ㄷ with ㄹ

Then we will continue to introduce the ㅂ니다 form, 요 form, and past tense variations.

ㅂ니다 type

Same as the normal rules.
ex: 듣다 -> 듣습니다

요 type

Varies according to the vowel of the ㄷ syllable.

1. When the vowel is "ㅏ,ㅗ

The basic rule is that if the vowel is "ㅏ,ㅗ", 아요 is added at the end.
For the ㄷ variant, replace ㄷ with ㄹ and add 아요 at the end.
For example, 깨닫다(realize) -> 깨달아요.


2. When the vowel is other than "ㅏ,ㅗ

The basic rule is that when the vowel is other than "ㅏ,ㅗ", 어요 is added after it.
For the ㄷ variant, replace ㄷ with ㄹ and add 어요 at the end.
For example,듣다 -> 들어요.

Past tense

The variation rule is similar to the 요-type.

1. When the vowel is "ㅏ,ㅗ

For the ㄷ variant, replace ㄷ with ㄹ and add ㅆ다(or ㅆ어요) at the end. For example, 깨닫다 -> 깨달았다 -> 깨달았어요.


2. When the vowel is other than "ㅏ,ㅗ

For the ㄷ variant, replace ㄷ with ㄹ and add ㅆ다(or ㅆ어요) at the end. For example, 듣다 -> 들었다 -> 들었어요。

ㄷ regular

Again, not all ㄷ endings are to be used with ㄷ irregular way.

For example, 받다 (accept), 닫다 (close), 믿다 (believe), 얻다 (get) ...,etc.
All of the above words are used in a regular way.

Summary

The following summarizes a table.

ㄷ irregular

verb/adj.ㄷ irregularㄷ irregular past tense
깨닫다깨달아요깨달았어요
걷다걸어요걸었어요
듣다들어요들었어요
묻다물어요물었어요
싣다실어요실었어요
눋다눌어요눌었어요

ㄷ regular

Englishverb/adj.ㄷ regular
accept받다받아요
close닫다닫어요
believe믿다믿어요
gain얻다얻어요
pour out쏟다쏟어요
bury묻다묻어요

묻다 is used as an ㄷ irregular when it means "to ask" and as a ㄷ regular when it means "to bury".

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Korean: 으 irregular Korean: 으 irregular
Korean: ㅅ irregular Korean: ㅅ irregular

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