Korean: ㅅ irregular


Most of the Korean adjectives and verbs, such as 아/어요, are used according to the basic rules of variation, but there are some exceptions, which are irregular variations (also known as variation rules). Common irregular variations include 으 irregular, ㄹ irregular, ㅂ irregular, ㅅ irregular, ㄷ irregular, 르 irregular, and ㅎ irregular.

If you are using Chrome or an Android phone, you can listen to the pronunciation by clicking on the Korean in the table or the Korean in the example sentences in the article!

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Irregularities

Most Korean adjectives and verbs follow the basic rules of variation, such as 아/어요, but some exceptions exist, and these exceptions are irregular variations.
Common irregular variations are

  • 으 irregular
  • ㄹ irregular
  • ㅂ irregular
  • ㅅ irregular
  • ㄷ irregular
  • 르 irregular
  • ㅎ irregular

This article introduces the use of ㄷ irregular.

ㅅ irregular

When the stem ending of a verb or adjective is ㄷ and is followed by "-으니까", "-으면", "-아/어서", "-으러", "-아/어요 ", pay attention to whether or not to make an irregular change in ㅅ.

「whether or not」!? Does it mean that not all the ㄷ-final words have to be changed irregularly?

→ Yes, some of them should be ㅅ irregular and some should be ㅅ regular.

examples of ㅅ irregular,낫다(well, healed), 붓다(pour, inject), 긋다(draw a line), 잇다(catch), 짓다(cook, build), 젓다(stir).
examples of ㅅ regular,씻다(laugh), 씻다(wash), 벗다(take off), 솟다(emerge), 빗다(comb), 빼앗다(snatch).

First, let's explain the usage of ㄷ irregular.

Irregular usage.
    remove the ㅅ

Then we will continue to introduce the ㅂ니다 form, 요 form, and past tense variations.

ㅂ니다 type

Same as the normal rules.
ex: 낫다 -> 낫습니다

요 type

Varies according to the vowel of the ㅅ syllable.

1. When the vowel is "ㅏ,ㅗ

The basic rule is that if the vowel is "ㅏ,ㅗ", 아요 is added at the end.
For the ㅅ variant, remove the ㅅ and add 아요 at the end.
For example, 낫다 -> 나아요.


2. When the vowel is other than "ㅏ,ㅗ

The basic rule is that when the vowel is other than "ㅏ,ㅗ", 어요 is added after it.
For the ㅅ variant, remove the ㅅ and add 어요 at the end.
For example,짓다 -> 지어요.

Past tense

The variation rule is similar to the 요-type.

1. When the vowel is "ㅏ,ㅗ

For the ㅅ variant, remove the ㅅ and add ㅆ다(or ㅆ어요) at the end. For example, 낫다 -> 나았다 -> 나았어요.


2. When the vowel is other than "ㅏ,ㅗ

For the ㅅ variant, remove the ㅅ and add ㅆ다(or ㅆ어요) at the end. For example, 짓다 -> 지었다 -> 지었어요。

ㅅ regular

Again, not all ㅅ endings are to be used with ㅅ irregular way.

웃다、씻다、벗다、솟다、빗다、빼앗다...etc.,
All of the above words are used in a regular way.

Summary

The following summarizes a table.

ㅅ irregular

verb/adj.ㅅ irregularㅅ irregular past tense
낫다나아요나았어요
붓다부어요부었어요
긋다그어요그었어요
잇다이어요이었어요
짓다지어요지었어요
젓다저어요저었어요

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