Korean: Future Tense 겠, 거예요, 게요 Usage
In Korean, the future tense is used mostly in the context of will, prediction, and plan. Because the future may contain uncertainties (such as speculation, conjecture), and there is a distinction between subjective and objective. So there is more than one way to say futuristic, and that's where we often get confused when we learn Korean. Now, let's introduce three types of Korean usage of the future tense: 1) ㄹ/을 거예요, 2) ㄹ/을 게요, and 3) 겠어요, and explain the differences between them.
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The Korean future tense is mostly used to express will, predetermination, and plan. For example, I'm going to school, I'm going on a trip, it's going to rain tomorrow, etc., to describe what will be done or what will happen in the future.
Since the future can be uncertain (like speculation, conjecture) and subjective and objective, there is more than one way to say futuristic, which is where we often get confused when learning Korean.
Now, let's introduce three types of Korean usage of the future tense 1) ㄹ/을 거예요, 2) ㄹ/을 게요, and 3) 겠어요, and explain the difference.
Future Tense(both subjective and objective): 겠어요
The first one I'd like to introduce is a very practical and simple usage of the future tense: 겠어요, which is based on the word "겠다".
The common response to "I got it" in English is the past tense, but in Korean it is the future tense of "알겠어요".
word's stem ＋ 겠다
In a future tense sentence, if the subject is one's own words, it contains one's own consciousness and is therefore subjective future tense. For example: "I'll eat well", "I'll be there on time", "I'll send the letter", etc.
I'll eat well.
나는 정시에 도착하_겠습니다_.
I will arrive on time.
이 메일을 보내_겠습니다_.
I will send this mail.
In the future tense, if the subject is not one's own words, the sentence does not contain personal consciousness and is therefore objective future, which means "to speculate". For example: "He will probably go", "It will probably rain tomorrow" and "It will be delicious".
He is going.
내일 비가 오_겠습니다_.
It will rain tomorrow.
It will be delicious.
Objective Future tense: ㄹ/을 거예요
The prototype of the phrase "ㄹ/을 거예요" is "ㄹ/을 것이다". The word "것이다" is included in the text of the article, and 것 is a pronoun. So, "것다" means "the way..." or "...like this". When you add the words "ㄹ/을" into the future tense, it becomes a speculative sentence. Therefore, this sentence type is used for objective description.
prototype: ㄹ/을 것이다
gossip: ㄹ/을 거야
요-type: ㄹ/을 거예요
word's stem ＋ ㄹ/을 거예요
use 을 when the stem ending with consonant， use ㄹ when the stem ending with vowel.
그는 갈 거예요.
He probably will go.
내일 비가 올 거예요.
It will rain tomorrow.
Subjective Future Tense: ㄹ/을게요
It is used to express your next action, what you expects to do, or your thoughts, so it is the subjective future tense. For example: "I have to go first", "I'm going on a trip"
Word's stem + ㄹ/을게요
Note that there are no spaces in the ㄹ/을게요.
I'll go first .
나는 여행 할게요.
I'm going to travel.